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Worldwide, small-scale fisheries (SSFs) contribute over half of global fish and invertebrate catch and generate employment for 90% of those working in the fishing capture industry, the majority of whom live in developing countries. Despite their importance, most of the world's estimated 10,000 SSFs are data deficient. Community data is critical to understanding fish stocks, and evaluating fisheries management policies, particularly in remote areas. This pilot study explores the potential for smartphones and the Open Data Kit software to assist in the collection of shark landings data in southwest Madagascar, where sustainable fisheries management is critical to economic and food security. The pilot builds on a previous study of participatory data collection using paper notebooks (2003–2016), which continued in eight villages throughout the smartphone trial (2013–2016), allowing comparisons in speed, accuracy and user experience to be drawn. Initial challenges, which included limited electricity supplies to charge the smartphones; typing errors caused by wet hands; and interpretation difficulties, were overcome during the trial with additional training and data accuracy improved as a result, with only 5% fewer records recorded on phones vs. paper notebooks by 2015. One major challenge - limited mobile network coverage – often prevented data from being uploaded from phones to an online database, meaning manual data extraction was required, with associated travel costs. With appropriate training, smartphones show promise as a useful and accurate tool for participatory fisheries data collection. However, this method may be better suited to regions with stronger mobile coverage.
Protected areas (PAs) are our principal conservation strategy and are evolving rapidly, but we know little about the real-world management and governance of new forms. We review the evolution of Madagascar's PA system from 2003 to 2016 based on our experience as practitioners involved. During this period PA coverage quadrupled and the network of strict, centrally-governed protected areas expanded to include sites characterized by: i) multiple-use management models in which sustainable extractive natural resource uses are permitted, ii) shared governance arrangements involving non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and local community associations, and iii) a management emphasis on livelihood-based approaches and social safeguards. We discuss the principal challenges for the effectiveness of the expanded system and detail management/policy responses. These include i) enhancing stakeholder participation, ii) ensuring financial sustainability, iii) enforcing rules, iv) ensuring the ecological sustainability of PAs faced with permitted resource extraction, v) reducing the natural resource dependence of local communities through transformative livelihood change, and vi) developing longterm visions to reconcile the differing objectives of conservation NGOs and other stakeholders. In general PAs have had limited effectiveness in reducing deforestation and other threats, which may be related to their rapid establishment processes and the complexity of management towards multiple objectives, coupled with insufficient resources. While Madagascar's achievements provide a basis for conserving the country's biodiversity, the challenge faced by its protected areas will continue to grow.
Marine Ecology Progress Series;
Elucidating factors that influence natural resources and diversity can assist managing species and their ecological functions. Key management options include protecting unique locations or implementing restrictions that more broadly protect ecological attributes and their services. To evaluate these 2 options, we examined 23 fish families in 152 unique sites in the Western and Northern Madagascar Ecoregion to test for spatial aggregation, environmental, habitat, and human influences on the fish communities. We found that there were 10 distinct communities of fish and that they were widely distributed in the region. Biomass and diversity were closely associated with the community types and showed weak spatial aggregation and environmental and market influences.
Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP);
This Topic Brief presents assessments of the financial performance of six WSUP-supported WASH service delivery models in Bangladesh, Madagascar, Mozambique and Zambia. Each model has been developed in partnership with locally mandated service providers to facilitate sustainable, at-scale improvements to low-income urban populations.
This GrantCraft case study, developed for Foundation Center's FundingtheOcean.org portal, explores how the Helmsley Charitable Trust took a humanistic approach in their due diligence processes with grantees in Madagascar. It includes the perspective of one of it's grantees, Blue Ventures, and how they worked together locally to establish a campaign to rebuild tropical fishing communities in Madagascar while sustainaing natural resources and biodiversity.
UN Food and Agriculture Organization;
In response to declining catches in the Fort Dauphin regional lobster fishery over previous decades – a trend seen in small-scale fisheries across the country – Project Oratsimba Phase II aimed to develop a replicable model for sustainable, community based lobster fishery management in south-east Madagascar.
Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered 20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months.
We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.
This report provides a resource to the donor community to facilitate the provision of support to ecological farming across Africa. Donor is defined broadly including: governments providing bilateral overseas development assistance, multilateral financial institutions, philanthropies, and international (UN) development organisations.It focuses on four primary channels as effective conduits for scaling up investment into ecological farming: academic and public research and training institutions; communityseed banks and exchange networks; public procurement schemes and producer organisations and cooperatives. It analysed eleven ecological farming initiatives from around the world involving support from donor organisations.
World Resources Institute (WRI);
Developing countries are receiving new financial and technical support to design and implement programs that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (referred to as REDD+). Reducing emissions from forest cover change requires transparent, accountable, inclusive, and coordinated systems and institutions to govern REDD+ programs. Two multilateral initiatives -- the World Bank-administered Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (UN-REDD Programme) -- are supporting REDD+ countries to become "ready" for REDD+ by preparing initial strategy proposals, developing institutions to manage REDD+ programs, and building capacity to implement REDD+ activities. This paper reviews 32 REDD+ readiness proposals submitted to these initiatives to understand overall trends in how eight elements of readiness (referred to in this paper as readiness needs) are being understood and prioritized globally. Specifically, we assess whether the readiness proposals (i) identify the eight readiness needs as relevant for REDD+, (ii) discuss challenges and options for addressing each need, and (iii) identify next steps to be implemented in relation to each need. Our analysis found that the readiness proposals make important commitments to developing effective, equitable, and well-governed REDD+ programs. However, in many of the proposals these general statements have not yet been translated into clear next steps.
This is the first-ever impact report of CARE's water+ program, which currently comprises more than 180 projects in over 40 countries. The study is a meta-analysis of 51 project evaluations, each scored against the three domains of the water+ theory of change: secure and sustainable access to services; gender-sensitive policies, institutions and norms; and gender-equitable control over services. Ten projects are also presented as case studies. The report concludes that there is a need to re-assess programming approaches and make more deliberate efforts to use water+ programs to orchestrate broader change.
Institute of International Education;
Compiles success stories of PHEA-supported efforts to transform universities and develop effective means of teaching, research, and services in nine African countries. Examines obstacles overcome, lessons learned, and new possibilities for partnerships.